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Adminstrative measures to prevent and tackle crime

Adminstrative measures to prevent and tackle crime



Criminals and persons involved in serious and organized crime often do not limit their activities to purely illegal ones such as drug trafficking, fraud or property crimes. They also invest money in legal activities and businesses, for instance to exploit there venues of their crimes or to generate a legal income. Criminals may establish or take over a construction company and then tender for government contracts. The ‘business processes’ of most types of organized crime also require legal facilities. Authorities thus have a particular interest in preventing criminals from either using the economic infrastructure to acquire a legal income or from misusing businesses to facilitate crimes and applying their criminal proceeds towards this purpose. An administrative approach applied in addition to or coordinated with the traditional instruments of criminal law is a potentially powerful tool to prevent and combat serious and organized crime. In 2011, the European Commission awarded an ISEC grant to the Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice (coordinator) to conduct a ‘study on the potential for information exchanges between administrative bodies and traditional law enforcement organizations to support the use of administrative measures within EU Member States and at EU level’. Tilburg University (the Netherlands) and the KU Leuven (Belgium) conducted this research, supported by the Belgian Home Affairs Ministry.

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An introduction to international migration studies



Focusing mainly on the European experience including Eastern Europe, this important volume offers an advanced introduction to immigrant incorporation studies from a historical, empirical and theoretical perspective. Beyond incorporation theories, renowned scholars in the field explore incorporation in action in different fields, policy issues and normative dimensions.






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Analyzing politics / uittreksel

Analyzing politics / uittreksel



Dit is het e-book uittreksel behorend bij het boek 'Analyzing Politics' (1e druk; ISBN 9780393971071 ) van Kenneth A. Shepsle & Mark S. Boncheck. Uittreksels van StudentsOnly bieden je een goede manier om de stof uit het boek nog sneller en makkelijker onder de knie te krijgen. Ze geven beknopt - in ca. 10% van het aantal pagina's van het boek - een compleet overzicht van alles wat belangrijk is. In het uittreksel wordt regelmatig naar pagina's, paragrafen, tabellen of figuren in het boek verwezen; het is dan ook moeilijk te gebruiken zonder het boek, maar des te beter samen met het boek.






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Centralizing forces?

Centralizing forces?



Police organizations in several Northern and Western European countries have recently witnessed fundamental reforms to their structures as well as to their relationships with governments. Many (but not all) of these macro-level reforms can be understood as forms of centralization. New or strengthened national police organizations have been created, with new territorial arrangements for delivering police services, involving the establishment of new structures of police governance and accountability. Written by highly experienced researchers, the essays in Centralizing Forces? reveal intriguing similarities and differences in police reform in eight European countries: France, Denmark, Finland, Belgium, England and Wales, Scotland, the Netherlands and Sweden. The chapters examine the nature and dimensions of police reform and the importance of the political, cultural, social and economic contexts in which reform is happening. Despite some significant similarities in the reform process, the book also illustrates that there are important differences in the backgrounds, nature and consequences of police reform. Police reform is therefore strongly context dependent, not only in its underling drivers and motives, but also in its cultural meaning and the resulting problems and challenges. The cumulative product of these insights is evidence of how police reform is strongly linked to changing views about the role of the police in contemporary society, the shifting balance of power relations between key actors, and on political assumptions about the preferred relationships between the public police and national governments. This book therefore provides critical insights into police reform in different national contexts and a snapshot of a dynamic European policing landscape in which the contours of the relationships between police organizations, governments and citizens are being redrawn.

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Contested police systems

Contested police systems



In the prevailing literature on police systems and their associated traditions of democratic control, continuity is deemed to be a much stronger characteristic than change. This study calls that insight into question. It examines and compares the changes that have occurred in the police systems of Belgium, Denmark, England & Wales, Germany and the Netherlands in the last few decades. These countries are geographic neighbours, and their police systems have undergone signifi cant reforms in recent years. Why these changes have taken place is the central question of this study, which was conducted by an international team of researchers. A police system is understood as the organisational structure of the civil regular police. It is the framework that makes possible the governance, organisation, implementation by and control  of the police. Frameworks defi ne the boundaries of police operations and can make possible or exclude certain solutions for juridical or political reasons. They potentially offer opportunities for change, adaptation, and innovation. In conjunction with the way police work is carried out in practice, a police system determines how adequately the police operate and to what extent they can cope with changing societal challenges. Complexity is a hallmark of modern police systems in terms of their organisation, management and control, not only on paper but also in practice. The changes to police systems in the countries studied show similarities as well as development in divergent directions. The study highlights the infl uences of community policing, continuing and increasing professionalisation and specialisation, and a predominance of New Public Management insights. In all fi ve countries centralisation and localism manifest themselves simultaneously. On the other hand police systems bear the imprint of existing politico-administrative and judicial structures and culture, existing institutionalised power structures and power relations, and the history of policing and the police system. They are often related to broader changes at issue in the public sector in the country. The occurrence of crises can cause divergence from existing patterns of development. What the  police do, how they work and perform, and how they are governed and controlled appear to be loosely interdependent.;

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Cross-border evidence gathering




Marloes van Wijk

In order to develop an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, the European Union is adopting measures to enhance international cooperation in criminal matters among the police and judicial authorities of its Member States. The adopted instruments concerning evidentiary matters, such as the gathering of evidence in another EU Member State, seem to serve the main purpose of assisting the authorities in investigating and prosecuting (cross-border) crime. This raises the question to what extent the defence is also given the possibility to gather information and materials in another EU Member State with the aim of preparing and presenting its case at trial and, in particular, whether the current (EU) legal framework on cross-border evidence gathering meets the requirements of the principle of equality of arms. This book addresses these questions by, first of all, discussing the application of the principle of equality of arms, as enshrined in both Article 6 ECHR and Article 47 CFR, in cross-border criminal cases. Secondly, it provides an overview of the European treaties and legislation on cross-border evidence gathering to explain to what extent they give opportunities to the defence to request the assistance of foreign authorities in obtaining specific information and materials in another EU Member State, and also to participate in the execution of these requests. In addition, in order to understand how the European treaties and legislation on cross-border evidence gathering are applied by the EU Member States, this book includes a comparative study of three national jurisdictions: the Netherlands, England and Wales, and Italy. Furthermore, it analyses the criminal justice system of the International Criminal Court, as a potential source of inspiration for new EU legislation to strengthen the ability of the defence to obtain evidence in another EU Member State. This book is part of the so-called Pompe series, which contains publications by staff members of the Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology in Utrecht, and by authors closely aligned to the school of thought for which the Institute is known. One of its main characteristics has always been the combination of legal and social-scientific approaches to problems of criminal law. The central theme of the Institute's research programme is the protection and enforcement of fundamental rights in a changing world. Within that programme, research focuses on the position of vulnerable groups in relation to the state and on the significance of individual human rights in an international context.






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Cybercrime and the police

Cybercrime and the police



This publication has been prepared on the occasion of the sixtieth (60th) anniversary of IPA Section the Netherlands, the Dutch branch of the International Police Association. It focuses on a range of studies centrally related to crime in a digitized society. The volume concentrates on policing and fighting crimes in a digital era. It provides several options and recommendations for implementing strategies that will allow the Dutch police to adapt to the quick changes in this field. The book provides an overall view of outcomes of recent cybercrime studies in the Netherlands and their implications for (inter)national police organisations. It is aimed primarily at the members of the IPA, but may also provide useful information for Police Academy students and police personnel who are involved in tackling cybercrime. There is an increase of digital (ICT) components in traditional crimes. Hacking is now one of the top crimes in the Netherlands.The studies in this volume suggest that it is wise to enhance public private partnership, expand international collaboration and invest in police education. It is important to note that the digitization is never complete. The police is advised to closely examine and readjust their strategy where needed and take into account a change in police clientele. Although this volume provides some answers, new questions also emerge. More research is needed to grasp what is happening in this fast-changing digital world. The IPA provides a large international network that is suitable for the exchange of knowledge, working methods and best practices. Internet makes our world smaller and the playing field of criminals much larger. Cybercrime is a global phenomenon. This book contributes to the police profession on a topic that is of great importance.

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Disentangling an invisible trade




Tessa Verhallen

This book sheds light on the interactional and institutional processes through which child welfare and child protection practices are delivered to fifteen Dutch and fifteen Dutch-Curaçaoan single-mother families with multiple problems in the Netherlands in order to assess structures of power, dominance and oppression. It is important to ‘Disentangle an invisible trade’, because state intervention practices remain largely ‘invisible’ from the public gaze.The author draws on a thirty-month ethnographic study, undertaken with the single-mother families between 2009 and 2012, in order to demonstrate how state interventions are carried out in these families. Using the empirically grounded theory of Agar (1985) on institutional discourse, the book addresses the question of how state interventions are shaped by institutional discourse and power asymmetries in encounters between single-mother families with multiple problems and state representatives.The different chapters of the book aim to unravel the ‘invisible trade’phenomena step-by-step, descending from the macro-level via the meso and micro- to the ego-level. It does so through the combined ethnographic critical discourse analytical framework, which the author has developed for the analysis of empirical data upon which the chapters are drawn. All four levels together make transparent how institutional discourse is (re)produced and constituted within sites of a larger system, which is influenced by power asymmetries.

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Doing research




Nel Verhoeven

Doing Research is an introduction to research methods and statistics. It answers questions like: what does ‘doing research’ mean exactly, how do you set up a research project, which steps should you take, how do you collect data and what are the pitfalls? This book clarifies the complex process of doing research, both applied and academic. It explains the basic skills required for conducting research. All stages of the research process are covered step-by-step: from setting up a research project through collecting data and analyzing results, to drawing conclusions and writing a research report. Many up-to-date examples are used to establish the link to everyday practice. Doing Research is suitable as an introduction for students in tertiary education, but it can also be used as a reference book for applied research.

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Frontline command

Frontline command




Jelle Groenendaal

Some frontline organizations presume that frontline command (defined as the direct supervision of frontline workers by frontline commanders) is required for frontline work to be effective. However, little scholarly effort has been devoted to investigate frontline command. This thesis therefore investigates the effectiveness of frontline command in the police organization responsible for major criminal investigation and the response organization of the fire service. Several research methods are used to get a better understanding of the degree to which frontline command can be studied. Contrary to the expectations of frontline organizations and many frontline commanders, the findings suggest that in current practice frontline commanders contribute to the effectiveness of frontline work only to a limited extent. However, in theory there is still a need for frontline command.This thesis suggests that frontline command can be appropriately studied and therefore calls for more empirical research to uncover the effects of frontline command and the degree to which it can be improved in practice. Implications for practice are provided.

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Human dignity

Human dignity




Arne Peter Braaksma

You must be the change you wish to see in the world Human Dignity takes you around the world, presenting the stories of eleven human rights defenders who act in the spirit of Gandhi’s motto: "You must be the change you wish to see in the world." Each of them has become a focal point of fighting human rights violations such as land theft, discrimination, the withholding of health services, dictatorship, environmental destruction, and global warming. The stories of these remarkable men and women reveal the challenges and struggles facing those who speak truth to power. It would be hard not to be inspired by their resilience in trying to create a better world. Human Dignity is the sequel to the successful Nine Lives: Making the Impossible Possible (New Internationalist, Oxford 2009) by the same author, which portrays nine other human rights defenders. Arne Peter Braaksma has worked as an editor in the UK and as a journalist in the Netherlands, focusing on human rights, the environment and corporate social responsibility. Contributors: Rebiya Kadeer (East Turkestan / Uyghur), Soe Myint (Burma), Martin Macwan (India), Khassan Baiev (Chechnya), Aminatou Haidar (Western Sahara), Samuel Kofi Woods (Liberia), Vuyiseka Dubula (South Africa), Maria Gunnoe (United States), Pablo Fajardo (Ecuador), Liliana Ortega (Venezuela), Sheila Watt-Cloutier (Nunavut)

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Internship guide

Internship guide




Esther Haag

Internship Guide: Work Placements Step by Step has been written from the practical perspective of a placement coordinator. This book addresses the following questions : what problems do students encounter when they start thinking about the jobs their degree programme prepares them for? How do you find your dream internship or placement? Is it okay to contact a company out of the blue or does there need to be a vacancy? Whom do you contact within such an organization, and how? Do you have to send an e-mail or would it be all right to contact them by phone? How will you know what kind of assignment will be approved by your faculty? What agreements do you lay down in a contract? Who pays the additional expenses? And how do you know if you speak the language of the organization well enough? All this and more can be found in Internship Guide: Work Placements Step by Step. This textbook has been written for students in higher education (universities of applied sciences and research universities).

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Keeping trouble at a safe distance




Remco Spithoven

The fear of crime is generally recognized as a social problem around the world. Yet, research has so far lacked to establish a reliable picture of this phenomenon. The present study examines the highly complex allocation of interacting perceptions, for which it provides suitable explanations through a social psychological approach. It aims to discover at what level of psychological distance citizens primarily experience 'the fear of crime' and how they contruct it. The author applies varous qualitative and quantitative techniques to conduct this research. For instance, historical discourse analysis, free associative interviewing, photo sorting via Q-methodology, and Structural Equation Modelling. The results show that citizens are determined to keep crime at a safe distance. Even to those who deem that crime is a significant factor in their immediate surroundings, 'the fear of crime' remains a distant and abstract social problem.






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Liaison officers

Liaison officers



Fixers, facilitators, go-betweens. Police liaison officers across the globe are often associated with a wide but rather ominous range of roles and tasks. In reality, liaison officers are formal representatives of their respective governments in charge of maintaining cross-country relationships with relevant law enforcement agencies. Though associated with friendly atmospheres and exotic destinations, these networked professional relationships are generally sensitive and rather demanding in nature. Over the past forty years liaison officers have increasingly played a pivotal role in the field of police cooperation, first recognized in 1993 by Nadelmann in his seminal work `Cops Across Borders. In spite of their growing role in police cooperation, almost no empirical research has been done since Nadelmann and also Bigo turned the lights on them. Meanwhile police agencies, certainly in Europe, have almost without exception adopted the model of liaison officers as an effective tool for international police cooperation. But how much do we actually know about liaison officers, their work, their dilemmas, and the politics surrounding their deployment? How do policies and budget developments affect liaison officers schemes? What can be said about their preparation and professionalization? This book presents rich and illustrative empirical material on the use of liaison offices in police cooperation. The authors, both eminent academics and seasoned practitioners (and in some cases from a dual academic-practitioner background), present their findings from a wide range of geographical and functional viewpoints. Students and law enforcement professionals are made familiar with the blue web of policing across the world. This book offers them a considerable variety of perspectives, ranging from academic to professional, from institutional to informal, and from sociological to psychological. Together the detailed accounts form a inspiring collection on contemporary practices of liaison officers that not only includes original empirical research, but also forms a work of reference as well as a unique textbook for students of international security and policing.

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Migration and integration in Europe, Southeast Asia, and Aus

Migration and integration in Europe, Southeast Asia, and Aus



This volume brings together a group of scholars from a wide range of disciplines to address crucial questions of migration flows and integration in Europe, Southeast Asia, and Australia. Comparative analysis of the three regions and their differing approaches and outcomes yields important insights for each region, as well as provokes new questions and suggests future avenues of study.






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Mobile banditry

Mobile banditry




Dina Siegel

The phenomenon mobile banditry has existed in Europe for centuries, however in recent years great concern has risen about the increase in the number of gangs from East and Central Europe who have been committing various types of crimes against property in West European countries. This research provides explanations and analyses of the historical, political, economic, and cultural backgrounds of the phenomenon `itinerant criminal gangs from different perspectives: the lessons learned from comparable situations in the past; the inevitable negative effects of globalization; the power of attraction of the West and the gulf between the rich and poor and between West and East Europe. The analysis of the connections between organized crime, shady entrepreneurs and corrupt politicians in East and Central Europe on the one hand, and the relationship between migrants and criminal groups in the Netherlands on the other provide explanation on the dynamics of the markets in stolen goods. This research, based on 127 interviews and observations in the Netherlands, Poland, Lithuania, Bulgaria and Romania, analysis of court files and literature studies provides answers to the questions what is the socio-cultural background of these criminals, how do they operate, where are the stolen goods and what are the Dutch, East and Central European and EU efforts to combat this form of organized crime.

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Striving for Allah

Striving for Allah




Fiore Geelhoed

Islamic fundamentalist movements such as Salafism are of great concern to Western societies like the Netherlands, yet much remains unknown about these phenomena. Striving for Allah aims to fill in the blanks by presenting primary data from indepth qualitative research in the Netherlands and, to a lesser extent, Britain. Firstly, this study compares orthodox, radical and extremist groups regarding attitudes, motives, reasons, and behaviour, within Islamic fundamentalism. Secondly, it presents an innovative theoretical framework that contributes to the understanding of the attraction of Islamic fundamentalism to converts, an important group that is often overlooked. The author finds that Dutch Muslim fundamentalists are not as `other as is commonly assumed. Instead, this research demonstrates that Islamic fundamentalism among Dutch and other Western Muslims is to a large extent a Western phenomenon. Islamic fundamentalism is hence a truly global phenomenon.

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Victimisation in a digitised society

Victimisation in a digitised society




Miranda Domenie

The internet has brought us great benefits but also new forms of vulnerability. Computers are attacked by hackers, people buying online are defrauded, and stalkers use digital technology to hound their victims. This research presents the first countrywide view of victimisation in the Netherlands caused by `offences with a digital component, in other words cybercrime. The results were collated from data covering 9,163 users of the internet from the age of 15 upwards. They focus chiefly on the scale of victimisation and the factors affecting the risk of becoming a victim. The role of the police is also taken into account. The figures reveal that cybercrime has a serious impact on the daily life of ordinary people. It has all the characteristics of high-volume crime. This means that expertise on cybercrime ought to be broadly available throughout the entire chain of criminal law. The results of this research are significant for all who are involved in the digitisation of our society and in combating crime.

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Who patrols the streets?

Who patrols the streets?




Jan Terpstra

Over the past twenty years apparently almost all over the world a new division of responsibilities has arisen in the management of crime and disorder. Public security is no longer considered to be the task of the police alone. Other agencies, both public and private, have increasingly become involved in preventing and combating nuisance, social disorder and crime. Who Patrols the Streets? is based on an international comparative study on the pluralization of policing in a number of countries: England & Wales, Canada, the Netherlands, Austria and Belgium. New uniformed officers are to be found in all these countries, with names, such as surveillance officer, community guard, warden, support officer and municipal patroller, that differ as much as their uniforms, equipment, legal powers, social status, or relations with the public police. For each of these countries an analysis is presented of these new forms of policing in the (semi ) public space. What circumstances contributed to it? What are the positive and negative consequences of this plural policing? The complexity of this field becomes even more impressive if one realizes that this pluralization of policing is largely a local phenomenon, implying significant differences from city to city, and from municipality to municipality, even within a single country. Although the pluralization processes were broadly similar in all these countries, with more or less comparable factors contributing to the rise and differentiation of local policing, the huge differences between the countries are even more obvious. This book presents an analysis of the main similarities and differences in plural policing between these jurisdictions. A typology is presented of the different forms of non-police providers of policing in the public space. Several models are presented that are relevant for the debate on the future policy and organization of non-police policing.;

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Discovery of society / uittreksel

Discovery of society / uittreksel



Dit is het e-book uittreksel behorend bij het boek 'The discovery of society' (7e druk; ISBN 9780072507362 ) van Randall Collins & Michael Makowksy . Uittreksels van StudentsOnly bieden je een goede manier om de stof uit het boek nog sneller en makkelijker onder de knie te krijgen. Ze geven beknopt - in ca. 10% van het aantal pagina's van het boek - een compleet overzicht van alles wat belangrijk is. In het uittreksel wordt regelmatig naar pagina's, paragrafen, tabellen of figuren in het boek verwezen; het is dan ook moeilijk te gebruiken zonder het boek, maar des te beter samen met het boek.






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Cyber Safety

Cyber Safety



This book is an introduction to the field of cyber safety. Its aims to present an overview of current knowledge in that area. Several experts have contributed to the book. The concept of cyber safety refers to safety in cyber space. Cyber safety is thus wider than the commonly used concept `cybercrime. Cyber Safety: an introduction is divided into four parts. Part 1 covers the introductory concepts, looking at cyber safety from different perspectives (juridical, technological, sociological & criminological). In Part 2, various types of cybercrime are described individually, addressing issues such as definition, nature, scale and offender characteristics. The cybercrimes reviewed include hacking, e-fraud, child pornography, unauthorised file sharing and cyber warfare. Further more, criminal techniques like botnets, social engineering and phishing will be addressed. Part 3 deals especially with youth and cyber safety. Specific themes are: online sexual solicitations, sexually explicit internet material, cyber bullying and the perils and pleasures of playing video games. Part 4 is about organisations that play a part in safeguarding the internet. It addresses the role of the police, commercial organisations such as Internet Service Providers, and information security.    Cyber Safety: an introduction is targeted at university students reading for a bachelor or masters degree (for example, in Safety and Security, or Police Sciences) and at professionals who encounter the negative effects of digitization in their working environment (for example, police officers and the courts, who will increasingly have to deal with digital elements in traditional cases, as well as youth workers wishing to know more about the world in which young people actually live).    Rutger Leukfeldt is researcher at the cyber safety research group of NHL University of Applied Sciences and the Dutch Police Academy and is PhD candidate in organised cybercrime at the Open University of the Netherlands.    Wouter Stol is Professor of Police Studies at the Open University of the Netherlands, and chairholder for cyber safety at NHL University of Applied Sciences and the Dutch Police Academy  ;

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