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A brief history of Islam in Europe

A brief history of Islam in Europe




Maurits S. Berger

A Brief History of Islam in Europe presents an overall presentation and discussion of developments ever since Islam appeared on the European stage thirteen centuries ago. The events and stories presented increase the understanding of present debates on, and notions of, Islam and Muslims in Europe. The leading questions in discussing the role of the Islam in Europe are: how and in what ways did Europeans and Muslims interact, and what is the role of religion therein? And for those Europeans who had never met a Muslim: what was their image of Islam, and how did they study the Muslim? This book shows that in the course of thirteen centuries the Muslim as well as Islam have undergone many metamorphoses. The Muslim has entered the European stage as a conqueror, antichrist, scholar, benign ruler, corsair, tradesman and fellow citizen. The image of Islam has meandered accordingly, as a religion that was feared as an enemy or embraced as a partner against heretical Christians, despised as an abomination or admired as a civilization, and studied for missionary, academic, colonial or security purpose. Maurits S. Berger is Professor of Islam and the West at Leiden University. He is also a Senior Research Associate at the Clingendael Institute for International Relations in The Hague, and a member of the Advisory Council for International Affairs at the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He often engages in European public debates and policies regarding the Muslim world and Muslims in the West. “Maurits Berger’s ‘Brief History of Islam in Europe’, is a tour de force which synthesizes the multiple encounters of Islam and Europe since 700 BC until now. It provides a fresh perspective on the ways history is politically and academically reconstructed to make sense of the Muslim presence in today’s Europe, and highlights the special status of Islam as the other of Europe over thirteen centuries of continuous encounters. This book is a must read for students of immigration, religion and politics.” — Jocelyne Cesari, Senior Research Fellow at the Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and World Affairs and Director of the Islam in the West Program at Harvard University.

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A Man of Change

A Man of Change




The President Yeltsin Centre Foundation

A Man of Change is a gift from the Foundation of the First President of the Russian Federation B.N. Yeltsin otherwise known as The Yeltsin Fund, produced in cooperation with Glagoslav Publications and distributed with the aim to preserve the knowledge and memory of Russia’s first President. Boris Yeltsin will be remembered as the fierce, daring political leader who fought for democratic ideals of his nation during an unprecedented crisis when the Soviet empire had already fallen apart and new emerging nations had not yet firmly established themselves in the region. Russia took over from the previously mighty union of nations, but the country had to be rebuilt and its leadership needed to be reaffirmed. During the years when others were abandoning the sinking ship, Boris Yeltsin showed a remarkable strength of character and took it upon himself to salvage the nation despite unfavorable odds. Yeltsin created a stronghold for the new Russian governance, and this book is about a man who worked until it was his time to go, and kept his promise to his native land. The President . Yeltsin Centre Foundation Founded in November 2000, "The President . Yeltsin Centre" Foundation is a non-profit organization whose main aim is to give the youth of Russia the opportunity to reach their creative potential. The Foundation uses its influence to support young people, cultivating their talents in various fields, including education, science, art and sport. The Foundation also carries out studies of historical and political foundations reforms that took place in Russia, and the role of President Yeltsin in Russian and international politics. The Foundation is working to nurture peaceful and friendly relations between the world’s nations, offering help in the battle against social and religious conflicts. In order to achieve these various goals, the charity has become a committed contributor to international humanitarian work. Authors: professor and doctor of engineering sciences M.R. Zezina, prof., doctor of engineering sciences O.G. Malysheva, D.Eng.Sc. F.V. Malkhozova, prof., doctor of engineering sciences R.G. Pikhoya Material by the following was used: doctor of philosophical sciences V.A. Boikov, doctor of engineering sciences A.D. Kirillova, G.M. Kayota






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Antisemitism




Jaap Tanja

Antisemitism can simply be defined as the 'hate against Jews'. However, it still is a complex phenomenon, with its own history and, unfortunately, present. By means of a Q&A author Jaap Tanja sheds a light on the concept of antisemitism. Antisemitism - Past and present has been published in cooperation with the Anne Frank House.;

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Borders and boundaries in and around Dutch Jewish History

Borders and boundaries in and around Dutch Jewish History



Bundel over de veelzijdige betekenis van 'grenzen' voor de joodse geschiedenis binnen en rondom Nederland. De artikelen in deze bundel belichten de veelzijdige betekenis van 'grenzen' voor de joodse geschiedenis binnen en rondom Nederland. De auteurs schetsen met hun bijdragen een beeld dat ingaat tegen de klassieke notie dat joodse gemeenschappen te definiëren zijn langs de grenzen van getto's, natiestaten, religie, of vanuit een vaste etnische identiteit. In plaats daarvan tonen zij vanuit een anti-essentialistisch perspectief hoezeer wisselende omstandigheden - geografisch, politiek - nationaal en ideologisch van invloed zijn op de constructie en veranderlijkheid van collectieve joodse identiteit. Of het nu ging om de invloed van Duitse joden op de vorming van een liberaal jodendom in Nederland, de Portugese identiteit van de joden van Salonika of de Antwerpse diamantslijpers die naar Israël emigreerden, telkens blijkt dat grenzen in de joodse geschiedenis zowel bepalend, als veranderlijk zijn. - David Wertheim is directeur van het Menasseh ben Israel Instituut in Amsterdam. Het instituut is een onafhankelijk Nederlands onderzoeksinstituut voor Joodse Studies, dat gedragen wordt door het Joods Historisch Museum en de Universiteit van Amsterdam.






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From luxury to necessity




Sjoerd Bakker

What do computers and smartphones have in common with the railways, electricity, and the automobile? Each triggered a technological revolution that radically changed the way in which we live, work, eat, shop and enjoy ourselves. From Luxury to Necessity shows how these technological revolutions affected everyday life and led to new consumer practices. Even though they would develop into absolute necessities within decades, all of them started as novelties for which meaningful uses were still unclear. The true value of the technologies was only realized when consumers started using them as part of new and valuable practices. This book recounts the struggles of consumers, businesses and governments to make sense of the new technologies and their unexpected uses. The historical perspective of the book sheds new light on the current it revolution, shows the remarkable similarities between past and present, and helps us to understand how new and existing consumer practices evolve with technological innovation.

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Modelscapes of nationalism




Yael Padan

This book provides a critical analysis of 'modelscapes': clusters of miniature architectural models representing entire environments, which are on display to the public. Such 'modelscapes' are representations of heritage, architecture, and collective identity. The case studies used in this book have in fact gradually become heritage sites in their own right. Using several case studies from Israel, the author shows how the miniature representation of contested physical space participates in the construction of a sense of ownership and appropriation towards the land and its history. Furthermore, rather than merely attempting to represent an exterior reality, these models endeavor to turn this chaotic and complex reality into a 'model reality' that can be easily grasped, contained, and controlled. The book investigates the meaning of such models, and the role they play within the context of an ongoing violent conflict concerning territory and history.






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Path of the patriots / 1

Path of the patriots / 1




Jan Kelley

Step into the revolution that changed the world 'It took all the daring of an English author to embark on writing a guide that transports the walker back in time to the Paris of the French Revolution. Her book illuminates this difficult and complex period, one that opened the door to a shining age of liberty.' - Frédéric Lacaille, Curator, Musée National des Chateaux de Versailles et Trianon You don't need to know anything about the French Revolution to enjoy Path of the Patriots, because this historical time-trip tells you everything! You'll see squatters in the Louvre, revolutionary committees in royal bedrooms, savage massacres and beheadings where Parisians now sit eating their sandwiches, and a revolutionary prison right in the middle of Boulevard Saint-Germain. Path of the Patriots is a goldmine of tales and anecdotes about this turbulent period in Paris's history, and it tells you where to eat and drink while reading them. This book is so full of fascinating stories, you'll enjoy it just as much sitting at home with a glass of wine as you will when you're wandering around the beautiful French capital. You'll never look at Paris in the same way again! Path of the Patriots comes in two volumes, and has a total of ten walks. The first four walks are in Volume One, which also gives you an introduction to the Revolution through a brief history of what happened, biographies of the people who made it happen, and a description of what the city of Paris looked like during the revolutionary era. In Volume Two there are six more walks that will complete this unique experience of Paris during one of its most dramatic periods of history. Whichever of these two volumes you read, get ready to step into the Revolution that changed the world! About the Author Jan Kelley is from London, but has spent much of her adult life in other places, including New York, Boston and Paris. Her professional life has been equally varied, ranging from teacher to translator and writer. A life-long love of history coupled with living in the ancient heart of Paris led her to write this book. Path of the Patriots, Volume Two: ISBN 978 90 76542 713 Path of the Patriots, Two-Volume Set: ISBN 978 90 76542 720 Also Available in Paperback Path of the Patriots, Volume One: ISBN 978 90 76542 508 Path of the Patriots, Volume Two: ISBN 978 90 76542 515 Path of the Patriots, Two-Volume Set: ISBN 978 90 76542 300 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Take a historical time trip through the streets where it all happened, to where Parisians lived, worked, ate and drank, rose up in arms, and to where many ended their lives under the blade of the guillotine. The two books contain ten walks, which take the reader around different neighbourhoods that were instrumental in the Revolution. Each walk gives the visitor a complete experience of the atmosphere of that area during this period by pointing out the people and revolutionary events associated with it. Also included are references to contemporary architecture, and some of the more colourful residents, as well as restaurants, brasseries and cafés with a revolutionary history. Each walk is full of stories and anecdotes, as well as illustrations, maps and detailed instructions. They reveal hidden treasures that will never be found in a typical tourist guide of Paris. Path of the Patriots is not just about the unknown. It also takes you to many of the more famous sights of Paris, including the Louvre, the Tuileries, the Conciergerie, Notre-Dame, Place de la Concorde, the Pantheon, the Palais-Royal, as well as a complete walk through the town and château of Versailles. Now, however, you have a different view. The Pyramid is not just the new and elegant entrance to the Louvre. It stands on the site of a labyrinth of tiny streets where rebellious citizens rose up against the King, and where the Queen got hopelessly lost while attempting to escape. Every walk offers a different glimpse into the excitement, idealism, and terror that characterized this amazing period of history, be it following the path of the condemned to the guillotine along the rue Saint-Honoré with stores and cafés still standing today, or visiting the prison that held Josephine during the Terror and still has her graffiti on the walls. The storming of the Bastille comes to life before your eyes as you have a drink on a café terrace that now occupies the main courtyard of this famous prison. For frequent visitors to Paris, this guide offers a unique way to look at the city. It gives an extra dimension to popular sites like the Tuileries by showing what used to be there (i.e. the Tuileries Palace, demolished in 1884) and what happened there. Many do not know that this is where Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette were first held in captivity, and where Robespierre compiled his dreaded list of suspects. Even fewer know that Thomas Jefferson attended musical concerts there, and only just escaped from being the first victim of the Revolution. The Walks, Volume I 1. Versailles - an Ending - and a Beginning The Town of Versailles Hôtel des Menus-Plaisirs Salles du Jeu-de-Paume The Château The Museum The Gardens The Trianons This walk takes you out of Paris into the magical world of Versailles, dazzling symbol of the ancien régime, Marie-Antoinette's sumptuous playground, where Louis XIV reigned in glory, where Louis XV thoroughly enjoyed himself, and where Louis XVI got embroiled in a revolution. You will witness the horrifying events that brought the golden age of Versailles to a brutal end when the hungry and enraged people of Paris invaded the once inviolable palace. This walk also takes you on a tour of the town of Versailles, whose inhabitants saw their king in splendour at the head of the opening procession of the Estates-General, only to witness, just a few months later, his sad departure forced on him by an angry multitude of Parisians. In this now peaceful town you'll find the indoor tennis court where rebel deputies swore to create a constitution, and a little park where French democracy was born. 2. The Cradle of the Revolution - In and around the Palais-Royal and its garden. `We went after dinner to admire the beautiful arcades that the new Duke of Orleans has just built around the Palais-Royal. Looking at them, it seems that we have achieved exactly the kind of place that Plato thought we should put prisoners, so as to retain them without violence and without a gaoler, but with gentle, voluntary chains. It is the Temple of Voluptuousness.' This walk takes you on a tour of these wonderful arcades built by Philippe d'Orléans, the renegade royal who went from duke to property speculator to patriot, eventually becoming a victim of the Revolution he adopted. His garden inside the arcades was a hotbed of political agitation, where pamphleteers and orators whipped up public opinion. One of these orators was Camille Desmoulins, whose fiery speech here in July 1789 was the first call to arms of the Revolution, and triggered the storming of the Bastille. 3. Saints and Scholars in the Latin Quarter Montagne-Sainte-Geneviève Panthéon Lycée Louis-le-Grand Place Maubert Saint-Séverin Over the centuries a mass of schools, colleges, abbeys and convents clustered around the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, the little hill in the centre of Paris that was to become the heart of the Latin Quarter. On the top sits the Panthéon, created by the National Assembly and destined to receive the remains of the nation's heroes - its scholars of revolutionary thought and its saints of revolutionary action. On this walk you'll see the historic school that turned numerous provincial boys into republican patriots. You'll also visit the neighbourhood of the night owl, Restif de la Bretonne, and the home of an ex-royal page whose denunciation sent his former mistress to the guillotine. And if you want to see a real revolutionary guillotine, this is the walk to take. 4. Chez Les Cordeliers Odéon Saint-Germain Luxembourg Les Cordeliers was one of 60 municipal districts created early in 1789 for the elections to the Estates-General. It corresponded to the central part of today's 6th arrondissement now known as Odéon, and its centre was the Cordeliers Convent, where Danton and his friends installed their revolutionary club. Many of the more prominent club members lived in this neighbourhood, which thus became associated with the Dantonist faction. A few steps from the club stood Marat's house, where Charlotte Corday visited one day with a kitchen knife. On the southern edge of the Cordeliers district was the Luxembourg palace, with its romantic gardens where one future revolutionary had an idyllic encounter that would change his life. To the west were the peaceful havens of the Carmes Convent and the Saint-Germain Abbey, both destined to be transformed by the Revolution into places of horror and death.

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Path of the patriots / Volume II

Path of the patriots / Volume II




Jan Kelley

Step into the revolution that changed the world You don't need to know anything about the French Revolution to enjoy Path of the Patriots, because this historical time-trip tells you everything! You'll see squatters in the Louvre, revolutionary committees in royal bedrooms, savage massacres and beheadings where Parisians now sit eating their sandwiches, and a revolutionary prison right in the middle of Boulevard Saint-Germain. Path of the Patriots is a goldmine of tales and anecdotes about this turbulent period in Paris's history, and it tells you where to eat and drink while reading them. This book is so full of fascinating stories, you'll enjoy it just as much sitting at home with a glass of wine as you will when you're wandering around the beautiful French capital. You'll never look at Paris in the same way again! Path of the Patriots comes in two volumes, and has a total of ten walks. The first four walks are in Volume One, which also gives you an introduction to the Revolution through a brief history of what happened, biographies of the people who made it happen, and a description of what the city of Paris looked like during the revolutionary era. In Volume Two there are six more walks that will complete this unique experience of Paris during one of its most dramatic periods of history. Whichever of these two volumes you read, get ready to step into the Revolution that changed the world! About the Author Jan Kelley is from London, but has spent much of her adult life in other places, including New York, Boston and Paris. Her professional life has been equally varied, ranging from teacher to translator and writer. A life-long love of history coupled with living in the ancient heart of Paris led her to write this book. --------------- Take a historical time trip through the streets where it all happened, to where Parisians lived, worked, ate and drank, rose up in arms, and to where many ended their lives under the blade of the guillotine. The two books contain ten walks, which take the reader around different neighbourhoods that were instrumental in the Revolution. Each walk gives the visitor a complete experience of the atmosphere of that area during this period by pointing out the people and revolutionary events associated with it. Also included are references to contemporary architecture, and some of the more colourful residents, as well as restaurants, brasseries and cafés with a revolutionary history. Each walk is full of stories and anecdotes, as well as illustrations, maps and detailed instructions. They reveal hidden treasures that will never be found in a typical tourist guide of Paris. Path of the Patriots is not just about the unknown. It also takes you to many of the more famous sights of Paris, including the Louvre, the Tuileries, the Conciergerie, Notre-Dame, Place de la Concorde, the Pantheon, the Palais-Royal, as well as a complete walk through the town and château of Versailles. Now, however, you have a different view. The Pyramid is not just the new and elegant entrance to the Louvre. It stands on the site of a labyrinth of tiny streets where rebellious citizens rose up against the King, and where the Queen got hopelessly lost while attempting to escape. Every walk offers a different glimpse into the excitement, idealism, and terror that characterized this amazing period of history, be it following the path of the condemned to the guillotine along the rue Saint-Honoré with stores and cafés still standing today, or visiting the prison that held Josephine during the Terror and still has her graffiti on the walls. The storming of the Bastille comes to life before your eyes as you have a drink on a café terrace that now occupies the main courtyard of this famous prison. For frequent visitors to Paris, this guide offers a unique way to look at the city. It gives an extra dimension to popular sites like the Tuileries by showing what used to be there (i.e. the Tuileries Palace, demolished in 1884) and what happened there. Many do not know that this is where Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette were first held in captivity, and where Robespierre compiled his dreaded list of suspects. Even fewer know that Thomas Jefferson attended musical concerts there, and only just escaped from being the first victim of the Revolution. The Walks 5 From the Temple of Reason to the Temple Prison Here you will discover the fascinating Enclos du Temple, the 'town within a town' that was a refuge from the law and a tax haven for thousands of people. It is better known, though, as the prison where Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette lived their last few months of family life. Between the site of this infamous royal prison and the great cathedral of Notre Dame, you will follow the young Danton as he tries to find his way around Paris for the first time. During this walk, which takes you through the Marais, you meet that singular 18th-century character, Caron de Beaumarchais, and see the house where he wrote 'The Marriage of Figaro' and organized aid to the American rebels. You will also re-live the last violent moments of Robespierre's power, and be a witness to one of the darkest events of the Revolution, the murder of Marie-Antoinette's devoted friend, the Princesse de Lamballe. 6 Ghosts in the Place du Carrousel This walk takes you back to the golden days of the Tuileries Palace, home to royalty before becoming a royal prison, and then the seat of the all-powerful Committee of Public Safety. During the revolutionary period the area between the Tuileries Palace and the Louvre was a maze of dark, narrow passages, where the houses of common folk stood side by side with bourgeois mansions. It was through this labyrinth of streets that Robespierre's 'fiancée' hurried to her art classes, where great masters were sold at bargain prices, where Napoléon was nearly assassinated, and where Marie-Antoinette wandered, completely lost, right under the nose of her unsuspecting subjects. When the monarchy was finally toppled, these same subjects, now enraged, poured out of their homes to join the crowd that was heading menacingly across the Place du Carrousel towards the Tuileries Palace. 7 The Route of the Condemned I From the Conciergerie prison sad processions of tumbrils set off each afternoon, transporting the daily batches of victims destined for the guillotine in Place de la Concorde, known then as Place de la Révolution. In walks number seven and eight you will follow in their footsteps, from prison cell to scaffold to grave, at the same time getting to know some of the residents of the area and the events that took place there. During walk seven you visit their prison, see where they were judged by the famous Revolutionary Tribunal, and then follow them as they are jolted around in a tumbril during their long and uncomfortable journey to the scaffold. On the way you'll see where Danton met his first wife, visit the pharmacy where a romantic Swedish count bought ink to write letters to the Queen, and witness the funeral cortege of a slightly less romantic but more famous count. 8 The Route of the Condemned II Walk eight re-joins the tumbrils as they roll through the Place du Palais-Royal on their long journey to the scaffold, and along the way you'll see a church where General Bonaparte emerged from the unknown to become a glorious hero. You'll visit the magnificent house where Lafayette spent the first years of his marriage, and in Place Vendôme you can see where Danton ran the Justice Ministry, as well as a house that contained a lot of mesmerised Parisians. This walk takes you through Robespierre's neighbourhood to the site of the famous Jacobin Club, where he reigned supreme during the Terror, and if you want to get better acquainted with this redoubtable revolutionary, you can have lunch or dinner in the same place where he ate every evening with his adopted family. After witnessing the last moments of the most famous patriots in the Place de la Révolution, and then following them to their burial place, you will end your walk at a highly subversive dinner party. 9 Sans-Culottes, the Terror, and a Path of False Hope For four centuries the inhabitants of the faubourg Saint-Antoine lived in the shadow of the grim mediaeval fortress known as the Bastille. For them it was an ever-present symbol of royal despotism, so it isn't surprising they chose it as a target on July 14th 1789, a day in French history that has never been forgotten. As you visit the faubourg Saint-Antoine - which unfortunately has been forgotten by many of today's visitors to Paris - you will be walking with the ghosts of hundreds of unsung popular heroes, for this was the cradle of the sans-culotte Revolution. The sans-culottes of Paris played a vital part in pushing the Revolution towards many of its most radical social reforms. But it was a violent process, culminating in a Reign of Terror that saw hundreds of hard-working citizens denounced, often by neighbours or even their own family. People lived in fear of the guillotine, and would do anything - and pay anything - to avoid being sent before the Tribunal, which meant almost certain death. Some did this by becoming 'patients' at Doctor Belhomme's clinic, where money bought safety. But for how long? 10 Power and Glory This walk begins in the faubourg Saint-Germain, seat of the rich and powerful for nearly three centuries, and home to the Empress Joséphine when she was still known as Rose. By 1792 most of its residents had emigrated, and the Revolution moved in, taking over great houses like the Hôtel de Salm, occupied by a political club, and the Palais Bourbon, which became the seat of the Directory government. Here were the roots of today's 7th arrondissement, still a bastion of the republican establishment and home to numerous government ministries. The walk ends on the Champ-de-Mars, where you'll re-live the best and worst of the revolutionary era.

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Path of the patriots, two-volume set

Path of the patriots, two-volume set




Jan Kelley

Step into the revolution that changed the world 'It took all the daring of an English author to embark on writing a guide that transports the walker back in time to the Paris of the French Revolution. Her book illuminates this difficult and complex period, one that opened the door to a shining age of liberty.' - Frédéric Lacaille, Curator, Musée National des Chateaux de Versailles et Trianon You don't need to know anything about the French Revolution to enjoy Path of the Patriots, because this historical time-trip tells you everything! You'll see squatters in the Louvre, revolutionary committees in royal bedrooms, savage massacres and beheadings where Parisians now sit eating their sandwiches, and a revolutionary prison right in the middle of Boulevard Saint-Germain. Path of the Patriots is a goldmine of tales and anecdotes about this turbulent period in Paris's history, and it tells you where to eat and drink while reading them. This book is so full of fascinating stories, you'll enjoy it just as much sitting at home with a glass of wine as you will when you're wandering around the beautiful French capital. You'll never look at Paris in the same way again! Path of the Patriots comes in two volumes, and has a total of ten walks. The first four walks are in Volume One, which also gives you an introduction to the Revolution through a brief history of what happened, biographies of the people who made it happen, and a description of what the city of Paris looked like during the revolutionary era. In Volume Two there are six more walks that will complete this unique experience of Paris during one of its most dramatic periods of history. Whichever of these two volumes you read, get ready to step into the Revolution that changed the world! About the Author Jan Kelley is from London, but has spent much of her adult life in other places, including New York, Boston and Paris. Her professional life has been equally varied, ranging from teacher to translator and writer. A life-long love of history coupled with living in the ancient heart of Paris led her to write this book. Path of the Patriots, Volume One: ISBN 978 90 76542 669 Path of the Patriots, Volume Two: ISBN 978 90 76542 713 Also Available in Paperback Path of the Patriots, Volume One: ISBN 978 90 76542 508 Path of the Patriots, Volume Two: ISBN 978 90 76542 515 Path of the Patriots, Two-Volume Set: ISBN 978 90 76542 300 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Take a historical time trip through the streets where it all happened, to where Parisians lived, worked, ate and drank, rose up in arms, and to where many ended their lives under the blade of the guillotine. The two books contain ten walks, which take the reader around different neighbourhoods that were instrumental in the Revolution. Each walk gives the visitor a complete experience of the atmosphere of that area during this period by pointing out the people and revolutionary events associated with it. Also included are references to contemporary architecture, and some of the more colourful residents, as well as restaurants, brasseries and cafés with a revolutionary history. Each walk is full of stories and anecdotes, as well as illustrations, maps and detailed instructions. They reveal hidden treasures that will never be found in a typical tourist guide of Paris. Path of the Patriots is not just about the unknown. It also takes you to many of the more famous sights of Paris, including the Louvre, the Tuileries, the Conciergerie, Notre-Dame, Place de la Concorde, the Pantheon, the Palais-Royal, as well as a complete walk through the town and château of Versailles. Now, however, you have a different view. The Pyramid is not just the new and elegant entrance to the Louvre. It stands on the site of a labyrinth of tiny streets where rebellious citizens rose up against the King, and where the Queen got hopelessly lost while attempting to escape. Every walk offers a different glimpse into the excitement, idealism, and terror that characterized this amazing period of history, be it following the path of the condemned to the guillotine along the rue Saint-Honoré with stores and cafés still standing today, or visiting the prison that held Josephine during the Terror and still has her graffiti on the walls. The storming of the Bastille comes to life before your eyes as you have a drink on a café terrace that now occupies the main courtyard of this famous prison. For frequent visitors to Paris, this guide offers a unique way to look at the city. It gives an extra dimension to popular sites like the Tuileries by showing what used to be there (i.e. the Tuileries Palace, demolished in 1884) and what happened there. Many do not know that this is where Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette were first held in captivity, and where Robespierre compiled his dreaded list of suspects. Even fewer know that Thomas Jefferson attended musical concerts there, and only just escaped from being the first victim of the Revolution. The Walks 1. Versailles - an Ending - and a Beginning The Town of Versailles Hôtel des Menus-Plaisirs Salles du Jeu-de-Paume The Château The Museum The Gardens The Trianons 2. The Cradle of the Revolution In and around the Palais-Royal and its garden. 3. Saints and Scholars in the Latin Quarter Montagne-Sainte-Geneviève Panthéon Lycée Louis-le-Grand Place Maubert Saint-Séverin 4. Chez Les Cordeliers Odéon Saint-Germain Luxembourg 5. From the Temple of Reason to the Temple Prison Notre Dame Hôtel-de-Ville Danton's first walk in Paris Temple 6. Ghosts in the Place du Carrousel The Louvre Place du Carrousel The Tuileries 7. The Route of the Condemned I -Their last look at the City Palais de Justice Sainte-Chapelle Conciergerie Pont Neuf Rue Saint-Honoré Place du Palais-Royal 8. The Route of the Condemned II -The Guillotine -and after Rue Saint-Honoré Place Vendôme Place de la Concorde Chapelle Expiatoire Parc Monceau 9. Sans-Culottes, the Terror, and a Path of False Hope Rue Saint-Antoine Place de Vosges Bastille Faubourg Saint-Antoine Dr Belhomme's Clinic Place de la Nation Picpus Cemetery 10. Power and Glory Faubourg Saint-Germain Invalides Ecole-Militaire Champ-de-Mars

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The practice of philology in the nineteenth-century Netherla

The practice of philology in the nineteenth-century Netherla



The Netherlands have a long and important tradition in scholarly philology. For instance in the early days of Leiden University 'philology', or the critical examination of classical texts, was regarded as a 'cutting-edge science'. This field of scholarship had far reaching implications on disciplines such as theology, chronology, astronomy, history, law and other demarcated bodies of knowledge identified as a separate science. Regardless of the exact field of inquiry, philologists as protectors and teachers of the written heritage always played a pivotal role in the formation of the cultural repertoire of the educated public. As men of learning and high esteem, philologists also exerted influence outside the cultural sphere, especially in politics and religion. The ever-changing composition of the philological frame of reference made no difference in this respect. But in the nineteenth century, the practice of philology was passing a crucial phase of change. In both its object of study and in its methods, several fundamental modifications occurred. Texts in the vernacular and national philologies attracted more and more attention of the public, and 'neo-philology' succeeded in taking over the central position traditionally occupied by classical philology. Subfields such as 'linguistics', 'edition technique' and 'history' grew into new, more-or-less independent (sub-)disciplines, whereas scientific methods such as stemmatology and comparative approaches were introduced in the humanities. This redesigned the landscape of philology radically. New boundaries became apparent and existing ones were questioned or drawn sharper. At the time, philology underwent an accelerated process of differentiation and professionalization. Philology demarcated its own more or less independent sphere, with a specific authority. The establishment of a branch of 'national philology' can be regarded as an example of discipline formation in the humanities. This fascinating process of change and the search for new boundaries in Dutch philology is highlighted in this book The Practice of Philology in the Netherlands in the Nineteenth Century, the first book on this topic in the English language.






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The pursuit of history / Uittreksel

The pursuit of history / Uittreksel



Dit is het e-book uittreksel behorend bij het boek 'The Pursuit of History ' (4e druk; ISBN 9781405823517 ) van John Tosh. Uittreksels van StudentsOnly bieden je een goede manier om de stof uit het boek nog sneller en makkelijker onder de knie te krijgen. Ze geven beknopt - in ca. 10% van het aantal pagina's van het boek - een compleet overzicht van alles wat belangrijk is. In het uittreksel wordt regelmatig naar pagina's, paragrafen, tabellen of figuren in het boek verwezen; het is dan ook moeilijk te gebruiken zonder het boek, maar des te beter samen met het boek.






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