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Organische chemie







From polymers to plastics

From polymers to plastics




A.K. van der Vegt

From Polymers to Plastics

The two words in the title of this book, 'polymers' and 'plastics', could
be considered as referring to two different worlds. In the world of
polymers, the properties of chain molecules are in the focus of attention,
and are subject of thorough theoretical studies.
In the world of plastics, the end-use performance of the technically used
materials counts, as well as their behaviour in the various processing
operations in which they are transformed into finished articles.
Nevertheless, these two worlds are closely related to each other. The
typical behaviour of plastics materials, strongly deviating from other
materials, can only be understood on the basis of the chain properties.
In this book an attempt has been made to give a survey of polymer
properties, and of the way these are, on the one hand, governed by their
molecular structure, and are, on the other hand, responsible for the
technological behaviour of plastics materials. As a result of this
intention, cross-references are given throughout the whole book: every
aspect of polymer science and of plastics technology is closely related to
practically every other aspect!
In each chapter lots of questions and exercises have been included. The
solutions to the problems can be found on this URL.
Contents: 1. Introduction 2. Molecular composition 3. Glassy state and
glass-rubber transition 4. Crystalline polymers 5. Rubbery and liquid
phases 6. Visco-elasticity 7. Mechanical properties 8. Further
properties 9. Polymeric compounds and composites 10, Processing
techniques 11. Data om materials Literature Index

http://www.vssd.nl/hlf/m028.htm








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Welding Technology

Welding Technology




G. den Ouden

Over the years a large number of techniques has been developed to join materials. Well known joining techniques are soldering, brazing, adhesive joining and welding, each playing an important role in the present manufacturing industry. In particular welding is applied on a wide scale, ranging from small products to large industrial constructions. In welding the parts to be joined are heated, sometimes in combination with the application of pressure. The necessary heat can be provided by various sources. Use can be made, for instance, of heat produced by electric current passage, by chemical reactions, by radiation and by friction. Usually, a distinction is made between fusion welding and solid state welding. The essential feature of fusion welding is that local melting of the material(s) takes place during the welding process followed by solidification, whereas in the case of solid state welding no melting takes place and the weld is formed by plastic deformation and solid state reactions. During welding the material to be welded is subjected to a thermal cycle, consisting of rapid heating, followed by relatively slow cooling. As a result of this thermal cycle different physical and chemical reactions take place in the liquid and solid phase, which are decisive for the properties of the welded joint. This textbook deals with the different aspects of welding and is based on courses given at Delft University of Technology in the period 1980 - 2008. It is intended primarily for undergraduate and graduate students in materials science and mechanical engineering, but may also provide useful background information to engineers and researchers, who are professionally involved in welding. The book is divided into three parts. In Part I (Processes) the most important welding processes applied in industry are addressed. Specific attention is given to arc welding (Chapter 1), whereas a number of other processes are reviewed in Chapter 2. Part II (Metallurgical aspects) deals with the effect of the thermal cycle due to welding on the structure and properties of the welded joint, including the development of residual stresses. In Part III (Applications) the possibilities and limitations of welding carbon and low-alloy steel (Chapter 4), stainless steel (Chapter 5) and aluminium (Chapter 6) are discussed. Chapter 7 deals with non-destructive testing of welded joints. NUR 914 URL on this book: http://www.vssd.nl/hlf/m012.htm








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