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Africa and the future of international criminal justice

Africa and the future of international criminal justice



Africa and the Future of International Criminal Justice examines critical issues concerning Africa as a place in which international criminal accountability mechanisms have played, and still continue to play a prominent role in the efforts to deal with and to tackle impunity for atrocity crimes. It interrogates important questions relating to Africas importance to international criminal justice as exemplified by the activities of international criminal accountability mechanisms. Some examples are the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the International Criminal Court (ICC).The contributions in the volume discuss the contentions about whether Africa is particularly targeted for international justice accountability experiments as well as the politics of international criminal justice. International politics continue to shape Africas relationship with international justice mechanisms and initiatives as demonstrated by the recent concerns of the African Union about the activities of the ICC in Africa. This publication clarifies that the ICC, as a permanent global international criminal accountability mechanism needs Africa and that Africa needs the ICC for full and effective realization of the normative prescriptions of the Rome Statute in Africa. In this regard the publication places the complementarity principle of the Rome Statute at the centre to enable Africa to take credible ownership of justice for atrocity crimes on the continent.

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After the Spring

After the Spring




Johannes Wheeldon

The protests that have sparked a generational revolution in Tunisia and Egypt have spread far and wide and renewed past efforts to replace authoritarian regimes with democratic institutions in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). This book argues a central aspect of democratization includes reforming the justice system. Focusing on probation, it proposes a three-tier model to understand efforts to reform penal practices, develop community-based alternatives to punishments, and promote the greater participation of society. By leveraging the experience of justice reform in the Former Soviet Union (FSU), including Russia, Estonia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Czech Republic, and specifically Latvia, this book presents development projects themselves as central sites of deliberation and debate. The book is based in part on interviews with UK, US, and Canadian scholars involved in justice reform projects in both the FSU and MENA. Although critical in its view of the law and economic development models of the past, this book argues justice reform projects offer a means to model the values that serve as the cornerstone of all democratic practices.

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Crime business and cime money in Europe

Crime business and cime money in Europe



While the European Union is groping for political and economic consolidation, one may wonder whether criminal businesses in and between the Member States are not consolidating as well. Are there indications that the crime-markets in Europe are shrinking? Or has the EU become more attractive for certain manifestations of the criminal economy, for example by increasing taxes for coveted commodities like tobacco? This increased potential criminal profit margin is certainly a stimulus for enterprising criminals. However, this attractiveness should be lowered by the `high-density` laws and regulations drafted to prevent the laundering of illegal profits. Who is attracted to crime-for-profit if these profits cannot be spent safely? Given the ongoing crime trade the prospects of making money by engaging in criminal entrepreneurship apparently have not yet waned. In this seventh volume of the Cross-border Crime Colloquium, experts from seven Member States of the European Union present their findings and opin-ions concerning the various manifestations of crime-trades and criminal finances in the EU. They present an analysis of the anti-money laundering regulations, the very modest successes in this field, a selecion of the criminal markets in Europe and the related organised crime imagery. The volume also addresses the question whether the legislative responses are really commensurate to the nature of the threats posed by crime-entrepreneurs.








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Crime, money and criminal mobility in Europe

Crime, money and criminal mobility in Europe



Europe has the image of a slow moving old lady. However, this is a misleading picture. As a matter of fact, the 'Old Continent' is bristling with life and mobility, and many fear that much of this is of a criminal nature. This criminal mobility is supposed to be aggravated by the accompanying movement of crime-money. It is true, Europe is 'on the move', legally and criminally. But this is all but a new phenomenon. Europe has always been an open space in whichpeople were moving around looking for (illegal) opportunities. This has not changed basically. Some of the wandering luck seekers operate aspredators, looking for objects to steel. Others offer services which areprohibited, either itself or in the way in which they are organised. The oldest of those services being sex. Naturally, the crime-monies from these flexible criminal economic activities have to move too. To block this financial movement an elaborate defence system has been established:the anti-laundering chain of financial 'fortresses'. In addition to the crime money threat there is the threat of corruption: though the 'old' MemberStates of the EU have their corruption affairs too, there is a real concernabout corruption in the new or candidate Member States. In this ninth volume of the Cross-border Crime Colloquium twenty experts from leading European institutions shed light on the various aspects of crime, money-laundering and criminal mobility in Europe.They present the outcomes of their research projects and the analysis of mobile criminal groups in Europe, the organisation of sex service between Eastern and Western Europe, surprising aspects of the money-laundering regime and corruption in new and candidate Member States. The book deals with these facets of criminal Europe as wellas with the emerging crime in a licit market: abuse and unsafety in thelabour market, the forgotten but largest mobile crime-market in Europe. www.petrusvanduyne.nl








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Criminal finances and organising crime in Europe

Criminal finances and organising crime in Europe



This anthology contains ten papers prepared for the Third Colloquium on Cross-Border Crime, held in Bratislava, Slovakia, at the National Police Academy in October 2001. Petrus van Duyne provides an introduction. Letizia Paoli presents a study on illegal drug markets in Germany, Italy and Russia. Klaus von Lampe analyzes the structure of criminal enterprises involved in the cigarette black market in Germany. Petrus C. van Duyne assesses the threat emanating from illicit profits. Michael Levi examines the effects of anti-money laundering measures on criminal and terrorist finances. Josef Stieranka reviews anti-money laundering strategies in Slovakia. Vladimir Baloun and Miroslav Scheinost provide an overview of financial crime in the Czech Republic. Jan Vittek discusses preventive measures against economic and financial crime in Slovakia. Matjaz Jager explores how economic concepts can enhance the understanding of corruption. Igor Osyka gives an account of corruption and anti-corruption measures in the Ukraine. Jim Newell explores the historical dimensions of political corruption in Italy. www.petrusvanduyne.nl








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Cross-border crime inroads on integrity in Europe

Cross-border crime inroads on integrity in Europe



Europe is not a quiet province, certainly not in terms of the prevalence of cross-border crime and corruption. As a matter of fact, there is a constant pressure on the integrity of its institutions, whether it concerns the Member States of the European Union or the countries outside this 'family', but applying for this coveted membership. This pressure does not only come from the 'outside': within the European Union there are also continuous criminal inroads being made on its integrity. This is not a new phenomenon. However, the intensification of cross-border mobility as well as recent complex legislation concerning criminal liability, also cross-border, e.g. for corruption, have changed the landscape and widened the risks of such criminal inroads. From trading across the Finnish-Russian border to new candidate countries in Southeast Europe, there are new threats looming. The Balkan countries, standing on the threshold of Europe are still rife with corruption. Within the European Union there are serious doubts about the solidity and efficiency of the institutions which are supposed to counter the threat of 'organised crime', corruption or other menaces against the integrity of the financial and economic system and its other interests. In this tenth volume of the Cross-border Crime Colloquium series these questions have been addressed by twenty four expert European scholars. Their recent or on-going research projects and studies are presented within 16 chapters. This volume provides a number of well-reasoned answers while making the reader aware how many questions still have to be addressed in this field. www.petrusvanduyne.nl








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European crime markets at cross-roads

European crime markets at cross-roads



While during the last decades the European licit markets expanded unstoppably, so did Europe's crime-markets. These crime-markets used to be projected against the so-called 'organised crime' framework, which seemingly provided some clarity. However, part of this hoped-for clarity was the outcome of an opaque interaction between media, law-enforcement and the crime-entrepreneurs themselves. Integrated into the main crime-market, the agencies of law enforcement and the media formed side-markets of their own. Of course, the radius of the licit market players was fanned by the 'real' markets they are fighting: drugs or sexual exploitation and the ubiqui-tous laundering of ill-gotten profits. But was their growth commensurate to the real threat? Indeed, law enforcement side-markets tend to have a capacity to outgrow the underlying crime-markets. This eighth volume of the Cross-border Crime Colloquium, to which 25 leading experts from nine Member States of the European Union and Serbia contributed, covers various sectors of the European crime-market: human trafficking, cigarette smuggling, money-laundering, the organisation of economiccrime, corruption in the Balkans and whether there are reasons to fear the Yugo- mafia. In addition, it deals with aspects of the organisations and legislation to fight these phenomena. It also elaborates a creative approach of thinking ahead of criminal market developments: drafting scenarios of criminal developments, which help to design strategic options instead of the usual reactive responses. Indeed, this eighth Colloquium volume describes aspects of the criminal present while being future oriented. www.petrusvanduyne.nl








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Financial investigation of crime

Financial investigation of crime



Financial investigation is not a new invention, but the systematizing of an old and ongoing daily detective`s practise. This book elaborates this notion and describes the various fields of application; for example getting a grip on the (organised) crime-markets of drugs and organised business crime. It provides insight into the tactical and strategic forms in financial criminal investigation and gives practical examples of application. The book is intended for practitioners as well as scholars and provides a broad overview of the literature. www.petrusvanduyne.nl








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Flesh and Money

Flesh and Money




P. van Duyne

Cross-border mobility of people in Europe continues cause anxiety for the authorities. Their anxiety is heightened when such mobility is the illegal crossing of borders and the exploitation of people, whether that exploitation is sexual, in the construction industry or agriculture. The illegal crossing of borders takes many forms; human trafficking is the most extreme but there are other forms of illegal people movement that include the smuggling of women over borders for exploitation in the sex industry. But many sex workers are not dragged into the sex service industry against their will. For many women it is an economic option of last resort and for others it is a real (temporary) job for which they are prepared to be smuggled across borders, sometimes under dangerous conditions. There are cases of women being smuggled by Bedouins on camels through the desert into Israel. Other women are involved with Bulgarian organised crime syndicates which have connections across European sex lines from the streets in Sofia to top brothels in Berlin and London. This volume brings together the reports and studies of expert European researchers in the field of human trafficking. It spans a decade of trafficking research and law enforcement activity. This is an important volume because the effects of globalisation are still being felt by those who are forced into debasing working conditions or roam around in the European continent looking for a better existence. This collection provides a window through which to explore their experiences. This book will include the following material: Miroslav Scheinost: Transnational crime and cross-border trafficking in human beings in the Czech Republic B. de Ruyver, K. van Impe and J. Meese: The need for a multidisciplinary and proactive approach to human A.D. Di Nicola: Trafficking migrants in Europe Vesna Nikolic-Ristanovic: Illegal markets, human trade and transnational organised crime Almir Maljevic: Trafficking women in Bosnia and Herzogevina J. Spencer: The illicit movement of people across borders: The UK as a destination country and the disorganisation of criminal activity K. Aromaa and M. Lehti: Trafficking in human beings: policy problems and recommendations J. Spencer: Media constructing organised crime concepts in an extended criminal Europe: trafficking women for sexual exploitation A. Markovska and C. Moore: Stilettos and steel toe-caps: legislation of human trafficking and sexual exploitation and its enforcement in the UK and the Ukraine P. Gounev, T. Bezlov and G. Petrunov: Market regulation and criminal structures in the Bulgarian commercial sex market D. Siegel: The romantics of the desert. Women smuggling to the Middle East V. Nikolic: Trafficking in humans and illegal economy in war and post-war society www.petrusvanduyne.nl








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Overarching views of crime and deviancy

Overarching views of crime and deviancy



On October 1st 1934 Willem P.J. Pompe (1893-1968), Professor of Criminal Law at Utrecht University between 1928 and 1963, founded the ‘Criminological Institute’ (Criminologisch Instituut) within the Faculty of Law of Utrecht University. Pompe initiated a rather influential academic movement, based on multidisciplinary cooperation between jurists, criminologists and psychiatrists. This academic movement is commonly referred to as ‘the Utrecht School’, which had its heyday in the 1950s. In 1974 – forty years after its formation – the Institute was renamed after its founder: the Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen. And another forty years later, in 2014, the Institute celebrated its eightieth anniversary. This book is written with the aim of adding lustre to this festive occasion. The central theme chosen for this collection of chapters is crossborder research in the fields of criminal law, penitentiary law, criminology, and forensic psychology and psychiatry. Besides a prologue and a postscript, the book contains twenty-three chapters, clustered in five parts. This first part consists of contributions that primarily address the history and research tradition of the Institute. Parts two to five each contain a number of contributions that represent the current state of the research activities at the Institute, and cover a variety of contemporary issues in, respectively, general criminal law and criminal procedure, in regulatory criminal law, European criminal law, juvenile criminal law, and penitentiary law, in forensic psychology and psychiatry, and in criminology.

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The criminal smoke of tobacco policy making

The criminal smoke of tobacco policy making



Product Description While the authorities were worrying about the 'globalisation of organisedcrime', mainly concerning drugs and human trafficking, a new crime-marketdeveloped: the illegal cigarette trade. As had happened so often in the historyof law enforcement, it was fully created by the authorities themselves by interferingin basic capitalist relationships of customers reacting to prices andtraders to profits. To discourage consumers' tobacco consumption, the taxeswere heavily increased, creating the illegal profit margin for those who succeeded to dodge this 'price-wedge'. It took some time before the EU-authorities discovered that a new market for organising criminals has come into being, allof their own making. The illegal cigarette market is extensive, cross-border, serving more customersthan the whole drug market, and still has attracted the attention of only a handful expert researchers who explored this criminal phenomenon in the last decade. In order to make their innovating research reports, spread over various other books and professional journals, better available, this special edition of the Cross-border Crime Colloquium brings their publications together. They provide insight into the working of this crime-market: the traffickers, the waysthey organise, the customers, the law enforcement reactions and all this together the shaping of a new crime-market, which is still unfolding dynamically. www.petrusvanduyne.nl








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The effective youth court

The effective youth court




Stephanie Rap

The Effective Youth Court is purpose-made for professionals and academics working in the field of juvenile justice to inform them about a new interdisciplinary perspective. The book explores the way juvenile defendants are involved in the courtroom. The leading idea of the book is that a combination of two perspectives is required to be able to react legally correct and adequately to youth delinquency. Knowledge of the legal framework that has been developed in the past decades in the area of human rights, particularly the procedural rights of the child, has to be enriched with social scientific insights in the development and treatment of the child. First, the book develops a normative framework for the application of the right to be heard in the youth court. Then it offers a comparative analysis of the actual practice of participation of juvenile defendants in Europe. In total 50 youth courts have been visited, involving more than 3000 cases of juvenile defendants. Finally, best practices in the youth court procedure are designated regarding the actual participation of juvenile defendants.

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The organisation of crime for profit

The organisation of crime for profit



Organised crime remains an important policy issue in Europe. Despite this importance, it proves easier to measure the bird flu than a widely feared criminal social phenomenon like organised crime. That is understandable: the phenomon covers a wide range of different forms of 'getting rich quickly' by entrepreneurial crime. Also, the lack of conceptual consensus and the poor quality of the data do not facilitate the measurement of organised crime. In addition, the perimeter phenomenon has broadened: money laundering, which has been associated with organised crime from the very beginning, has become a phenomenon of its own with a universal dimension.The increased focus on ill-gotten profits has brought financial and economic crime (by its nature organised) into the orbit of organised crime. In addition, the former USSR satellite states have (or are about to) become full members of the EU. This increased playground for the organisation of crime is a matter of growing concern.In this sixth volume of the Cross-border Crime Colloquium, experts from eight European countries share their expertise regarding the measurement of organised crime, financial and economic criminality, money laundering, corruption and the Mafia and the organisation of business crime, comparing cartel building, labour subcontracting and cigarette smuggling. This volume contains contributions from Petrus C. van Duyne, Klaus von Lampe, Maarten van Dijck, Rob Horsnby, Anna Markina, Karen Verpoest, Barbara Vettori, Miroslav Scheinost, Brendan Quirke, Norbert Wagner, Martin Boberg, Uwe Beckmann, Thomas Schulte and James L. Newell. www.petrusvanduyne.nl








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The organised crime economy

The organised crime economy



In this fifth volume of the European Colloquium Group on Cross-border Crime, experts from the 'Old' and 'New' Europe bring together their expertise regarding the criminal markets, (organised) crime-entrepeneurs and the vulnerability of trade and industry.They address phenomena concerning the organisation of crime markets, ranging from the traditional drug trafficking, women trading, the organised 'black' labour market and licit commodities of consumer products like alcohol and cigarettes. Also the 'upperworld', criminal finances, money laundering and related policy, is scrutinised from the perspective: are the problems properly recognised, measured and countered? www.petrusvanduyne.nl








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Threats and phantoms of organised crime

Threats and phantoms of organised crime



In this fourth volume of the European Colloquium Group on Cross-border Crime, expert researchers from Central and Western Europe critically examine these anxieties, the underlying threats and the feasibility of adequate responses. They raise crucial questions, including: how does the ´management of fear´ operate politically, to what extent are we succesful in delineating and penetrating the underlying phenomena, and are we sufficiently aware of the political costs of current strategies to counter organised crime, corruption and terrorism? www.petrusvanduyne.nl








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Upperworld and underworld in cross-border crime

Upperworld and underworld in cross-border crime



Crime patterns in Europe are changing rapidly, keeping pace with the rapid expansion in trade and industry and the mobility of goods and people. The smuggling of drugs and other commodities is no longer confined to the shores of the European Union, but extend from Petersburg to the Bosporus. The same applies with the crime-moneys derived from this criminal trade. This book deals with the most recent topics concerning the dynamics of this cross-border crime: smuggling, economic crime and underground banking in Western and Eastern Europe, against which the European Union designs new legal measures to stem this tide. The contributions are written by Europe`s leading experts in this field. www.petrusvanduyne.nl








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